Machining center is suitable for processing complex, more processes, require a higher number of common machine tools and a large number of tool fixtures, and after several clamping and adjustment to complete the processing of parts. The main object of its processing are box parts, complex surface, shaped parts, plate sets of parts and special processing, and other five categories.
(1) box parts
Box parts generally refers to a more than one hole system, the internal cavity, in the long, wide, high direction has a certain proportion of parts. Such parts in the machine tools, automobiles, aircraft manufacturing and other industries with more. Box parts are generally required for multi-station hole and plane machining, tolerance requirements are higher, especially the geometric tolerance requirements are more stringent, usually through milling, drilling, expansion, boring, hinge, countersink, tapping and other processes , Need more tools, in the ordinary machine processing difficult, large number of tooling sets, high cost, long processing cycle, need to be clamped several times, find the number of manual measurement, processing must be frequent replacement of the tool, the process is difficult to develop , More importantly, the accuracy is difficult to guarantee.
Processing box parts processing center, when the processing station more, need to rotate the table several times to complete the parts, the general selection of horizontal boring and milling processing center. When the processing of the station is small, and the span is not large, the optional vertical machining center, from one end of the processing.
(2) complex surface
Complex surface in the machinery manufacturing industry, especially in the aerospace industry occupies a particularly important position. Complex surface using ordinary machining method is difficult or even impossible to complete. In China, the traditional method is to use precision casting, can imagine the accuracy is low. Complex surface parts such as various impellers, guide wheels, spheres, various surface forming dies, propellers and underwater vehicle propellers, and some other shapes of free surfaces. Such parts can be processed by machining centers. The more typical of the following:
① cam, cam mechanism
As the basic components of mechanical information storage and transmission, is widely used in a variety of automatic machinery, such parts have a variety of curves of the disc cam, cylindrical cam, cone cam, barrel cam, face cam and so on. Processing of such parts can be selected according to the complexity of the cam three-axis, four-axis linkage or use five-axis linkage of the processing center.
② the whole impeller class
Such parts are common in aircraft engine compressor, oxygen equipment expansion machine, single screw air compressor, etc., for such a type, can be used more than four axes linked to the processing center to complete.
③ mold category
Such as injection mold, rubber mold, vacuum forming plastic mold, refrigerator foam mold, pressure casting mold, precision casting mold. Machining die with machining center, due to the highly centralized process, dynamic mold, static mold and other key parts of the finishing is basically in a single installation to complete the processing content, can reduce the cumulative error of the size and reduce the repair workload. At the same time, the mold can be replicable, good interchangeability. Machining residual to the fitter work less, where the tool is accessible, as far as possible by the mechanical processing to complete, so that the work of the mold fitter is mainly polished.
Machining center milling can be used. Three-axis milling can only be used as a head cutter for near processing, low efficiency, five-axis milling can be used as an end mill for the envelope surface to approach the spherical surface. Complex surface processing with the processing center, the programming workload is large, most of the automatic programming technology.
(3) shaped parts
Shaped parts are irregular parts, most of the need for points, lines, surface multi-site mixed processing. The rigidity of the special parts is generally poor, the clamping deformation is difficult to control, the machining precision is also difficult to guarantee, and even some parts of the processing parts with ordinary machine is difficult to complete. With the processing center processing should be a reasonable process measures, one or two clamping, the use of processing center multi-site, line, surface mixing processing characteristics, to complete multi-channel process or all the process content.
(4) plate, sets, plate parts
With a keyway, or radial hole, or the end of the distribution of the hole, the surface of the disk or shaft parts, such as the flange with the sleeve, with keyway or square head of the shaft parts, there are more holes Processing of plate parts, such as a variety of motor cover and so on. The end of the distribution of holes, the surface of the disk parts should choose vertical machining center, radial hole with optional horizontal machining center.
(5) special processing
After mastering the function of the machining center, with a certain tooling and special tools, the use of machining centers can be completed some special work, such as the metal surface lettering, engraving, engraved pattern; in the processing center of the spindle mounted on the high Frequency spark power, the metal surface can be scanned on the surface of the surface quenching; with the processing center installed high-speed grinding head, can achieve a small modulus involute bevel gear grinding and a variety of curves, surface grinding.